By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance.
|Global indicator description
Land Tenure Land tenure can be described as a bundle of rights that individuals and communities have with regard to land, which may include the rights to occupy, to use, to develop, to inherit, and to transfer land. Some of these rights will be held by individuals, some by groups, and others by political entities. This bundle of rights can be broken up, rearranged and passed on to others. The following is the typology: Secure tenure rights or tenure security Tenure security is the right of individuals and groups to effective protection by the state against evictions, i.e. under international law, "the permanent or temporary removal against their will of individuals, families and/communities from the home and/or the land they occupy, without the provision of, and access to, appropriate form of legal or other protection". Security of tenure can then be defined as "an agreement between an individual or group about land and residential property, which is governed and regulated by a legal and administrative framework. A person or household can be said to have secure tenure when they are protected from involuntary removal from their land or residence by the state, except in exceptional circumstances, and then only by means of a known and agreed legal procedure, which must itself be objective, equally applicable, contestable and independent." Perceived tenure security refers to an individual's experience of his/her tenure situation or their estimated probability that their land rights will not be lost as a result of eviction by the state, land owner or other authority, or because of other factors that may cause involuntary relocation or curtail their use of the land, such as threats of land conflicts. Characterizing tenure status is based on four sets of interrelated parameters: 1. Primary tenure rights on land 2. Land tenure (rights of occupants on the land) 3. Occupancy status (of the dwelling unit) 4. Type of development Legal tenure security refers to the legal status of tenure and its protection backed up by state authority. De facto tenure security is based on the actual control of property, regardless of the legal status in which it is held. It can best be defined by the elements that compose it or contribute to it, such as the length of time of occupation, its socially accepted legitimacy and the level and cohesion of community organization. UNFAO (2003) defines Communally held land is where rights to use resources are held by a community. It refers to situations where rights to use resources are held and controlled by a community. While these rights may include communal rights to pastures and forests, they may also include exclusive private rights to agricultural land and residential plots. Local Communities A group of individuals belonging to the same community residing within or in the same vicinity of a particular parcel, property or natural resource. The community members are co-owners that share exclusive rights and duties, and benefits contribute to the community development. Indigenous land rights Indigenous land rights are rights specific to a particular ethnic group, having evolved through interaction of culture and environment and overseen by authorities whose legitimacy is based on occupation and spiritual ties to the locality. Community land rights Community land rights are collective rights of land ownership, access or use held or exercised in common by members of a community. A community may be designated as a village-based or more geographically dispersed community, or a clan or a lineage. Collective rights A situation where holders of land rights are clearly defined as a group and have the right to exclude others from the enjoyment of those land rights. Collective ownership of a natural resource refers to a situation where the holders of rights to a given natural resource are clearly defined as a collective group, and where they have the right to exclude third parties from the enjoyment of those rights. Common property Common property refers to situations in which entitled beneficiaries hold specified rights in common to specific areas of land, land-based natural resources or other types of property. Property / private property Property signifies dominion or right of use, control and disposition, which one may lawfully exercise over things, objects or land. Property rights Property rights refer to "a bundle of rights to use, control, and transfer assets, including land. These include the rights to occupy, enjoy and use; to restrict others from entry or use; to dispose, buy or inherit; to develop or improve; to cultivate; to sublet; to realize financial benefits; and to access services in association with land. Open access resources Resources ' including land ' to which everyone has unrestricted access and that are not considered to be the property of anyone. Ecosystem services: Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly affect people and supporting services needed to maintain the other services. Natural resources: The term 'natural resources' refers to oil, minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be exploited for economic gain.